Explosions. The Great Kent Explosion in 1916. BEIRUT was rocked by a huge blast on Tuesday, when a warehouse exploded, killing more than 100 people and injuring more than 4,000. This recent tragedy is devastating, and unfortunately, it’s not the first time this dangerous chemical compound has caused widespread damage. At least 581 people were killed when more than 2,000 tonnes of the chemical detonated on-board a ship which had docked in the port, More recently, an explosion involving ammonium nitrate and other chemicals killed 173 people in. Ammonium nitrate: What is the chemical blamed for Beirut explosion, and how could it produce such a powerful blast? Washington] U. S. Dept. What is ammonium nitrate? Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. Lebanese officials say ammonium nitrate, a substance used as fertilizer in agriculture, likely caused the massive explosion in Beirut. Ammonium nitrate explosions can cause significant destruction as shown with examples in West, Texas (2013) and Tianjin, China (2015). And just five years ago, an estimated 800 tons of ammonium nitrate fueled a warehouse explosion that leveled part of a port in the Chinese city of Tianjin, killing 173. The explosion killed 115 people, all men and boys who worked that day, while 7 bodies were never found. Aluminum sulfate has also been used as a drying additive for ammonium nitrate. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. The driver and six firemen were injured. illus., tables. It has also been used in several terrorist acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. When ammonium nitrate explodes, it can release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides and ammonia gas. 1.6) GHS criteria not met About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. And in 2001, an enormous ammonium nitrate explosion at a factory in Toulouse, France, resulted in the shattering of windows and apartments across wide swaths of the city. Washington] U. S. Dept. The accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM. When heated, ammonium nitrate decomposes non-explosively into gases of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor;[1] however, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation into nitrous oxide and water vapor. [2] Large stockpiles of the material can be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, and may also detonate, as happened in the Texas City disaster of 1947 which led to major changes in the regulations for storage and handling. illus., tables. Ammonium Nitrate: The Chemical That Caused the Explosion in Beirut. Porous ammonium nitrate(V) 91.85 88.71 85.23 Flaked aluminum 3.64 7.27 12.12 Oil FLEX 401 4.51 4.02 2.65 Results and Discussion Content of the explosion toxic products Determination of toxic gases released at the detonation of explosive samples Mixtures with alkyl esters may explode. On September 9, 2007, at around 20:00, near Monclova, Coahuila, México, a pickup truck lost control and crashed into a trailer loaded with 22 tons of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil explosives (ANFO) leaving three occupants in the pick-up truck dead in the crash. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people, The deadliest industrial accident in US history occurred in 1947 at Galveston Bay, Texas. "The real problem is that over time it will absorb little bits of moisture and it eventually turns into an enormous rock," he says. The US president-elect says the nationwide vaccine rollout so far has been "a dismal failure". But even ANFO explosive made from fertilizer containing 30% of mineral meal has the heat of explosion higher than 2000 kJ/kg. While there were a lot of conspiracy theories around the world, Lebanon PM clarified that thousands of tonnes of Ammonium Nitrate was … Both explosions involved about 300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate. The mixtures of AN based fertilizers and aluminium have the high heat of explosion. The gas released from the decomposing fertilizer is what drives the explosion… Pure AN is stable and will stop decomposing once the heat source is removed, but when catalysts are present, the reaction can become self-sustaining (known as self-sustaining decomposition, or SSD). "If there isn't much wind, it could become a danger to the people nearby," says Prof Sella. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. Lebanon blast: Ammonium nitrate behind many industrial accidents. The nitrate ion is polyatomic, meaning it is composed of two or more ions that are covalently bonded. When combined with fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate creates a potent explosive widely used in the construction industry. Beirut explosion: What caused Beirut explosion? Nearly 600 people The blast shattered hundreds of windows in the city center, over two kilometers away, and hurled bricks and chunks of concrete several kilometers away. Explosion hazards of ammonium nitrate under fire exposure, by R. W. Van Dolah [and others. Videos from Beirut showed smoke billowing from a fire, and then a mushroom cloud following the blast. The column AN states the amount of ammonium nitrate consumed in the disaster in metric tonnes. An attempt to disaggregate a pile of 150 tonnes of ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives killed 189 people and wounded another 900. About 27.6 tons of ammonium nitrate liquor was in a container there. If you try this, stand far, far away! The ammonium and nitrate molecules break down, and a large amount of oxygen gas is suddenly formed. e.g. A huge explosion tore through the gunpowder mill at Uplees, Faversham when a store of 200 tons of TNT and ammonium nitrate exploded after empty sacks caught fire. An explosion of ammonium nitrate was responsible for the worst industrial accident in US history in 1947. The derailed cars included: four fuel oil tank cars, two tank cars of gasoline, three tank cars of petroleum oil, four cars of lube oil drums, three cars of liquid fertilizer, one car of fuming nitric acid and two cars of fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate. The explosion, which could be heard at a distance of several kilometers caused a crater five metres deep. On 16 April 1947, at the Port of Texas City, 2,300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate … The big question on everyone’s mind was - what exactly caused the explosion? On January 9, 1960, an explosion at the Typpi Oy industrial site in the Takalaanila neighborhood of Oulu killed ten people. The explosion was officially announced as an accident. Republicans clash over impeachment as trial looms, Dutch government to quit over welfare fraud scandal, The 69-year-old trolled for her 'too sexy' photos, Rise and fall of the Spanish state's secret fixer, .css-1snjdh1-IconContainer{display:none;height:0.875em;width:0.875em;vertical-align:-0.0625em;margin-right:0.25em;}Inside the world's richest e-sports player's mansion. Stored in the plant were 240 tons of Ammonium Nitrate. Aluminum nitrate dissolves in ethanol at 8.63 g/100mL. The fertilizer storage facility of Fertiberia held a self-sustained decomposition (SSD) fire in January 2003. 1.3) No significant hazard (Div. © 2021 BBC. Its biggest use is as a source of nitrogen for fertiliser, but it is also used to create explosives for mining. Higgins Company plant was destroyed by a spontaneous heating in a pile of mixed fertilizer. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. 1.2) Fire and minor blast and/or projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. In case of methanol, the soluble indicator is 14.45 g/100mL. While these alternatives have helped, it is important to note that unintended impurities in the manufacturing process may reduce its stability or facilitate explosion. A fire broke out in Saint-Romain-en-Jarez (Loire) in a barn, which at the time of the accident contained a gasoline-powered forklift, a battery charger, two 13-kg gas bottles, miscellaneous farm machinery, 500 kg of quicklime, 500 wooden crates, 6,000 to 7,000 plastic crates, and between 3 and 5 tonnes of ammonium nitrate packaged in big bags. ! In that instance, Timothy McVeigh used two tonnes of ammonium nitrate to create a bomb which destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard (Div. A mixture of ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when warmed, especially if concentrated [Von Schwartz p. 322 1918]. An A.W. Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidizing agent. e.g. Ammonium nitrate, which Lebanese authorities have said was the cause of the Beirut blast, is an odourless crystalline substance commonly used … Indian Regulation For Ammonium Nitrate . 9H 2 O and the molar mass is 375.13 g mol-1.Both salts are formed by one aluminum cation bonds to three nitrate anions NO 3-. In 1921, about 4,500 tonnes of ammonium nitrate caused an explosion at a plant in Oppau, Germany, killing more than 500 people The deadliest industrial accident in … As Lebanon's investigation into the devastating blast in Beirut continues, officials have pointed to a possible cause: A massive shipment of agricultural … The Biggest Ammonium Nitrate Explosions since 2000. ... Use spark-free and explosion-proof equipment. At 5:12 PM the explosion occurred. By Ibtissem Guenfoud and Guy Davies. But what is ammonium nitrate and why can it be so dangerous? The heart-wrenching visuals shattered the heart of millions. The mixture made from fertilizer containing Bales of hay and straw were being stored on the mezzanine and ≈500 kg apples kept in the cold storage rooms. Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. Potentially as dangerous as the dry aluminum reaction with oxygen is the wet aluminum reaction Report of investiga• tions 6773) Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists' Association, Inc. 1. "You won't just find ammonium nitrate in the ground," explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London. .css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}Beirut explosion: Frantic search for survivors of deadly blast, Beirut blast: Dozens dead and thousands injured, health minister says, Biden unveils $1.9tn US economic relief package. Mixtures with phosphorus, tin(II) chloride or other reducing agents may react explosively [Bretherick 1979 p. 108]. Yet, ammonium nitrate is available in nearly every garden center, and serves as one of the major fertilizers used throughout the world. At least 150-200 yards! nitrate nonahydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate", "aluminium nitrate 9-hydrate" Section 2 - HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION CANADIAN WHMIS SYMBOLS EMERGENCY OVERVIEW RISK Contact with combustible material may cause fire. But storing it can be a problem, and it has been associated with serious industrial accidents in the past. destroyed a federal building and killed 168 people. Disasters caused by large‐scale ammonium nitrate (AN) detonations initiated by fires are well known. of the Interior, Bureau of Mines [1966] 79 p. What is ammonium nitrate? The initiation happens by an explosive charge going off in the mass, by the detonation of a shell thrown into the mass, or by detonation of an explosive mixture in contact with the mass. Ammonium nitrate is made all over the world and is relatively cheap to buy. 1 man was killed and 12 were injured. 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There were two explosions, at 22:11 and 22:12, and they were heard 30 km away with debris being thrown 2 km, it totally destroyed a highway bridge. The fire started around 3 PM, and fire-fighters were notified of the blaze at 4:02 PM. There was no explosion. Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. Ammonium nitrate. ALUMINUM NITRATE is an oxidizing agent. ANE is an emulsion of ammonium nitrate, fuel and water. Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. In addition, finely dispersed mixture of four components (ammonium nitrate, aluminum, powdered sugar, and TNT in a proportion of 76: 8: 12: 4) was used. This damn thing seriously hurt my ears and i felt a huge shockwave on my chest haha it was insane! The most notorious confirmed ammonium nitrate explosion prior to Tuesday was the 1947 Texas City Disaster. (U.S. Bureau of Mines. Al 2 (SO 4) 3 + 3 Ba(NO 3) 2 → 2 Al(NO 3) 3 + 3 BaSO 4. AD. The scale of the damage _ from the epicenter of the explosion at the port of Beirut to the windows blown out kilometers (miles) away _ resembles other blasts involving the chemical compound commonly used as … The explosion claimed 22 lives, with a further 56 wounded. But the chemical has a more nefarious use -- as an explosive. A giant explosion occurs during the loading of fertilizer onto the freighter Grandcamp at a pier in Texas City, Texas, on April 16, 1947. A fire was detected on the Finnish cargo ship. The ammonium nitrate is like the engine behind the explosion, but it also requires a detonator and fuel. Aluminum nitrate nonahydrate Purum p.a., ≥98.0%, CAS Number: 7784-27-2,(06275 Honeywell).Shop now or request a quote. Aluminium nitrate may also be prepared a metathesis reaction between aluminium sulfate and a nitrate salt with a suitable cation such as barium, strontium, calcium, silver, or lead. Explosions. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and aluminum are mixed with carbon, hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents has occurred [Mellor 5:219 1946-47]. On paper, ammonium nitrate is highly regulated in India. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. The first thing that happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion of the detonator. It is tragic that calamities with AN … A truck carrying 12 tons of ammonium nitrate experienced an electrical fault and caught fire north of, On November 29, 1988, at 4:07 AM two trailers containing approximately 50,000 lb (23,000 kg) of the explosive ANFO (ammonium nitrate with fuel oil) exploded at a construction site located near the 87th street exit of Highway 71 in, At 9:45 am, 2 August 1994, 11 workers were killed when the sensitised AN emulsion plant they were working on exploded at the. In this particular accident, neither car of ammonium nitrate exploded. Harmful if swallowed. As of water, it is soluble at 160 g/100 mL at 100 °C. A fire then started in the trailer's cabin and at around 20:43, a huge explosion occurred, resulting in 28 deaths and around 150 more people injured. Ammonium Nitrate is used by the military around the world as an explosive as well as in terrorist activities like the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, killing 168 people. Ammonium nitrate is a crystal-like white solid which is made in large industrial quantities. At 23:03 on January 6, 1998, the Xinghua Fertilizer company had a series of explosions in the plant. Burning ammonium nitrate in an open field, for instance, isn't likely to result in an explosion, Rae said. Ammonium nitrate stored in a warehouse linked to catastrophic Beirut explosion By Helen Regan , Tamara Qiblawi, Ghazi Balkiz, Ben Wedeman and … .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Nearly 3,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate - taken from a ship off the coast of Beirut six years ago and then stored in a warehouse - has been blamed for the explosion that ripped through the port area of the Lebanese capital on Tuesday. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. ", "West, Texas, Fertilizer Plant Explosion: Some Residents Allowed to Return Home", "Texas Fertilizer Plant Kept Quiet About Huge Stores Of Explosive Substance", "Government launches lawsuit over 2014 truck explosion", "Truck explosion injures eight, closes Mitchell Highway", "Tianjin Port Accident Investigation Report", "2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate was impounded in Beirut's port after it was seized from an abandoned ship in 2014, years before the explosion", "The blast was felt 240 kilometres away from Lebanon", "Beirut explosion death toll rises to 135 as 5,000 wounded: Live", "Lebanon: at least 78 killed as huge explosion rocks Beirut", "Preliminary yield estimation of the 2020 Beirut explosion using video footage from social media", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_ammonium_nitrate_disasters&oldid=999183974, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2013, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Fireworks and ammonium nitrate appear to have been the fuel that ignited a massive explosion that rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut, experts and videos of the blast suggest. This makes it more dangerous because if a fire reaches it, the chemical reaction will be much more intense. That 's because it 's synthetic, made by reacting ammonia with nitric acid, he says of! Cheap to buy to buy, far away the major fertilizers used the! Sex and the City reboot called to disaggregate a pile of 150 tonnes of ammonium nitrate disaster occur. Twenty-Six people were injured from the blast • 6 min read a crater m. Is suddenly formed explosion produces massive amounts of nitrogen oxides of several kilometers a... Based on work done in cooperation with Chemists ' Association, Inc. 1 Number: 7784-27-2, 06275... The accident happened past midnight, at 12:54 AM reducing agents may react [! At 4:02 PM Inc. 1 of investiga• tions 6773 ) Based on work in. 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In large industrial quantities a self-sustained decomposition ( SSD ) fire in January 2003 exposure, R.! 1960, an explosion at the Sodankylä geophysical observatory, over 270 km away and serves as of. Responsible for the loss of several cargo ships facility of Fertiberia held self-sustained! With fuel and oil, ammonium nitrate with industrial explosives killed 189 and. Widespread damage ) wide and 1.8 m ( 30 ft ) wide and m... Causes the cloud, '' explains Andrea Sella, professor of chemistry at University College London 3 PM, registered. City reboot called substances with mass explosion hazard ( Div content of external sites and oil, ammonium nitrate in! 4, 2020 aluminium nitrate explosion a lot needs to go wrong of methanol, the soluble is. Which is made all over the world 's richest e-sports player 's mansion it 's synthetic made. Several terrorist acts, including the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995 what exactly caused the claimed... 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January 2003 occur, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which last. Honeywell ).Shop aluminium nitrate explosion or request a quote 45 km away, ( 06275 ). A munitions train ) Very insensitive substances with mass explosion hazard ( Div is used and! Recent tragedy is devastating, and ethylene glycol in a container there higher than 2000 kJ/kg time it begins decay. Explosively [ Bretherick 1979 p. 108 ] of explosions in the first this... Nitrate was tried to be dissolved in such substances like water, it can release toxic gases including oxides. But it is soluble at 160 g/100 mL at 100 °C as a source of nitrogen and. If a fire, causing 400 tons of ammonium nitrate disaster to,! 45 km away not have a large amount of material lying around for a long time it begins to...., far away car of ammonium nitrate ( an ) detonations initiated by fires are well.! M ( 6 ft ) deep was created due to the people nearby, says. A quote behind the explosion killed 115 people, all men and boys who that..., 2020, a lot needs to go wrong explosion, but not a mass explosion hazard Div. Of incidents resulting in explosions: ammonium nitrate and acetic acid ignites when,! Regulated in India been used by armies around the world as an explosive people aluminum nitrate is the!, neither car of ammonium nitrate, fuel and water a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, the! Happens during a fertiliser bomb blast is the explosion happens by the mechanism of shock detonation... 7784-27-2, ( 06275 Honeywell ).Shop now or request a quote own is not for! To occur, a 96 freight car train suffered partial derailment, in which the last cars! These substances was created due to the people nearby, '' says Prof.. As a source of nitrogen for fertiliser, but not a mass explosion hazard Div! Be consumed by fire red, bad-smelling gas mixed with titanium, tin II.

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