In Lebanon, taro is known as kilkass and is grown mainly along the Mediterranean coast. Sliced taro corms, deep fried in oil and mixed with red chili powder and salt, are known as 'saru chips'. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations where water is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Another technique for preparation is boiling it in salt water till it is reduced to a porridge. It is usually cooked with celery and pork or chicken, in a tomato sauce in casserole. In Mithila, Bihar, taro corms are known as ədua (अडुआ) and its leaves are called ədikunch ke paat (अड़िकंच के पात). Species. Aroids. It is usually cooked with small prawns or the ilish fish into a curry, but some dishes are cooked with dried fish. On the other hand, in flooded production systems taro requires a longer maturation period, investment in infrastructure, and higher operational costs, and monoculture is likely. In the Sinhala language of Sri Lanka it is called "Kiri Ala" (කිරිඅල). C. esculenta is a perennial, herbaceous rodless plant. Arbi is also a very popular dish among the Hindu community in South Africa, where it is known as patha. Harvesting is usually done by hand tools, even in mechanized production systems. Cooked taro leaf has the consistency of cooked spinach and is therefore unsuitable for use as a wrapping. Taros are often prepared like potatoes, eaten boiled, stewed or mashed, generally with salt and sometimes garlic as a condiment, as part of a meal (most often lunch or dinner). For differentiation, potatoes are called batata-inglesa (literally, "English potato"), a name used in other regions and sociolects to differentiate it from the batata-doce, "sweet potato", ironic names since both were first cultivated by the indigenous peoples of South America, their native continent, and only later introduced in Europe by the colonizers. These can be eaten whole, cut into pieces, or shallow fried and eaten as a snack known as alu chi wadi. Taro is used in the Tết dessert chè khoai môn, which is sticky rice pudding with taro roots. The smaller variety of taro is more popular in the north due to its tenderness. [20][21] Colocasia is thought to have originated in the Indomalayan realm, perhaps in East India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. They do best in compost-rich soil and in shade, but will grow reasonably well in average soil provided it is moisture-retentive. Flooded cultivation has some advantages over dry-land cultivation: higher yields (about double), out-of-season production (which may result in higher prices), and weed control (which flooding facilitates). [46], It is a food staple in African, Oceanic and South Asian cultures.[28]. in cooking process taro is diced and cook along with rice and dried shrimp and sesame oil. In Ghana, it substitutes for plantain in making fufu when plantains are out of season. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. [32][33], Archaeological traces of taro exploitation have been recovered from numerous sites, though whether these were cultivated or wild types can not be ascertained. it is an important ingredient in dalma, a popular Odia dish. McDonald's sells taro-flavored pies in China. Sun-dried taro leaves are later used in broth and stews. In its raw form, the plant is toxic due to the presence of calcium oxalate,[49][50] and the presence of needle-shaped raphides in the plant cells. In the east Indian state of West Bengal, taro corms are thinly sliced and fried to make chips called kochu bhaja. Various other recipes also exist locally. [83] A recent study has revealed honeycomb-like microstructures on the taro leaf, which makes the leaf superhydrophobic. The color of the taro root can be different in different places, it could be white, brown, pink or purple in color. Hao, Sean. with the addition of peeled and diced corms as thickener. Araceae – Arum family Genus: Colocasia Schott – colocasia Subordinate Taxa. [27][28] Taro is found widely in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia and is highly polymorphic, making taxonomy and distinction between wild and cultivated types difficult. Colocasia esculenta can produce plants of varying size, leaf shapes and sizes and varying colors. Taro cake is a delicacy traditionally eaten during Chinese New Year celebrations. ", "A Brief History of Taro in Hawai`i ." Hawaiians have traditionally used water irrigation systems to produce kalo. Another dish, pujji is made with mashed leaves and the trunk of the plant and ghandyali or taro corms are prepared as a separate dish. The traditional staple however is the Swamp Taro known as Pulaka or Babai, a distant relative of the Taro but with a very long growing phase (3-5 years), larger and denser corms and coarser leaves. As a result of this, Taro was not a part of the traditional diet due to the infertile soil and have only become a staple today through importation from other islands (Taro and Cassava cultivars are usually imported from Fiji or Samoa). In Gujarat, this leaf is called arbi (or alvi) and is used to make patra. This is then wrapped traditionally in a banana leaf (nowadays, aluminum foil is often used) and put in the ʻumu to cook. Lately, some restaurants have begun serving thin slices of kolokasi deep fried, calling them "kolokasi chips". Native Introduced Native and Introduced. It is also prepared as part of a lentil soup with crushed garlic and lemon juice. Among the Urapmin people of Papua New Guinea, taro (known in Urap as ima) is the main source of sustenance along with the sweet potato (Urap: wan). For example, the newer name for a traditional Hawaiian feast (luau) comes from the kalo. For gardeners, it is primarily grown as a foliage plant with huge, heart-shaped to arrowhead-shaped, conspicuously-veined, downward-pointing, peltate leaves (to 2' long) on long, stout, succulent stems. It is boiled in a tomato sauce or cooked with meat, beans and chickpeas. The species Colocasia esculenta is invasive in wetlands along the American Gulf coast, where it threatens to displace native wetland plants. The resulting taste is smoky, sweet, savory and has a unique creamy texture. Growth is best at temperatures between 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F). It is used in the Cantonese dim sum to make a small plated dish called taro dumpling as well as a pan-fried dish called taro cake. Edible varieties (kiri ala, kolakana ala, gahala, and sevel ala) are cultivated for their corms and leaves. [82], It is also used for anthocyanin study experiments, especially with reference to abaxial and adaxial anthocyanic concentration. It spread by cultivation eastward into Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands; westward to Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean Basin; and then southward and westward from there into East Africa and West Africa, where it spread to the Caribbean and Americas. Colocasia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southeastern Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The plant has rhizomes of different shapes and sizes. Porridges are made from the corms themselves, which may also be boiled, seasoned with salt and eaten as snacks. It was used in place of potatoes and dried to make flour. In Cyprus, Colocasia has been in use since the time of the Roman Empire. A non-native apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is a major culprit along with a plant rot disease traced to a newly identified species of fungus in the genus Phytophthora that now affects kalo crops throughout Hawaii. It is known as amadumbe (plural) or idumbe (singular) in the Zulu language of Southern Africa. In Maharashtra, the leaves are called aloo and are used to make a sweet and sour curry with peanuts and cashew nuts that is commonly cooked during marriages. Cocoyam is often boiled, fried, or roasted and eaten with a sauce. Ocumo is the Venezuelan name for malanga, so ocumo chino means "Chinese malanga". Colocasia esculenta is a common aroid grown all over the world both as an ornamental plant and as a food source. Cho, John J, Yamakawa, Roy A., and James Hollyer. [citation needed]. The variety known as eddoe is also called Chinese tayer. The leaves are a good source of vitamins A and C and contain more protein than the corms. In Thai cuisine, taro Thai: เผือก (pheuak) is used in a variety of ways depending on the region. It is sometimes called the Polynesian potato. A tall-growing variety of taro is extensively used on the western coast of India to make patrode, patrade, or patrada (lit. The Fiji Ministry of Agriculture and the Land Resources Division of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) are researching pest control and instigating quarantine restrictions to prevent the spread of the pest. [15] Micronutrients include iron, copper, magnesium, potassium, and zinc. [16], Colocasia leaves contain phytochemicals, such as anthraquinones, apigenin, catechins, cinnamic acid derivatives, vitexin, and isovitexin.[16]. Ideally, an ahupuaʻa has all the necessities within its borders. Timber Press, Oregon. A popular recipe for taro is laing from the Bicol Region; the dish's main ingredients are taro leaves (at times including stems) cooked in coconut milk, and salted with fermented shrimp or fish bagoong. [66] It is sometimes heavily spiced with red hot chilies called siling labuyo. Another common taro plant grows roots in shallow waters and grows stems and leaves above the surface of the water. [9], There are numerous species of Colocasia.[1][3][4][10]. Icarians credit taro for saving them from famine during World War II. Colocasia 'Coffee Cups' Colocasia 'Coffee Cups' has been on my wish list for MANY years. In Puerto Rico[81] and Cuba, and the Dominican Republic it is sometimes called malanga or yautia. Web. In Fujian cuisine, it is steamed or boiled and mixed with starch to form a dough for dumpling. In the Brazilian Portuguese of the hotter and drier Northeastern region, both inhames and carás are called batata (literally, "potato"). Taro leaves are also eaten, cooked with coconut milk, onion, and meat or fish.[53]. Then seasoned with tamarind paste, red chili powder, turmeric, coriander, asafoetida and salt, and finally steamed. The dish called Arvi Palak is the second most renowned dish made of Taro. [8][9], Names in African languages include jimbi in Swahili,[10] amadumbe or madumbi in some languages of South Africa,[clarification needed] kontomire in Ghana, kókó and lámbó in Yoruba,[citation needed] and amateke in Kinyarwanda. Within the Sylheti dialect of the Bangla language, it is called mukhi. [7] Like other members of the family, the plant contains an irritant which causes intense discomfort to the lips, mouth and throat. Alocasia reginula ‘Black Velvet’ If you’re looking for a plant that is dark and mysterious, yet stunning … Kalo is the Hawaiian name for the taro plant. Once harvested, kalo is incorporated into many foods. The Roman cookbook Apicius mentions several methods for preparing taro, including boiling, preparing with sauces, and cooking with meat or fowl. The corms are larger than what would be found in North American supermarkets. [52] The root is eaten boiled, as is standard across Polynesia. When kalo was brought to Hawaiʻi, there were about 300 varieties (about 100 remain). The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Some species are widely cultivated and naturalized in other tropical and subtropical regions. [62] The Hawaiian word for family, ʻohana, is derived from ʻohā, the shoot which grows from the kalo corm. [5] It is 芋 (yu) or 芋頭 (yu tou) in Chinese; 芋 (POJ: ō͘) or 芋頭 (ō͘-á) in Taiwanese Hokkien;[6] and vasa in Paiwan,[7] and tali in Amis. [citation needed] It is the most widely cultivated species of several plants in the family Araceae that are used as vegetables for their corms, leaves, and petioles. In Northern China, it is often boiled or steamed then peeled and eaten with or without sugar much like a potato. Definitions of what constitutes an inhame and a cará vary regionally, but the common understanding in Brazil is that carás are potato-like in shape, while inhames are more oblong. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. The Fijian taro industry on the main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu faces constant damage from the beetles. It is also sold as an ornamental aquatic plant. The crop attains maturity within six to twelve months after planting in dry-land cultivation and after twelve to fifteen months in wetland cultivation. It is grown in a patch of land dug out to give rise to the freshwater lense beneath the soil. [78] It is also commonly consumed in Guinea and parts of Senegal, as a leaf sauce or as a vegetable side, and is referred to as jaabere in the local Pulaar dialect. Taro corms are a food staple in African, Oceanic, and South Asian cultures (similar to yams), and taro is believed to have been one of the earliest cultivated plants. It is an erect herbaceous perennial root crop widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical world belonging to genus Colocasia in the plant family called Araceae. Large taro leaves are used as an alternative to an umbrella when unexpected rain occurs. Taro paste, a traditional Cantonese cuisine, which originated from the Chaoshan region in the eastern part of China's Guangdong Province is a dessert made primarily from taro. In Uttarakhand and neighboring Nepal, taro is considered a healthy food and is cooked in a variety of ways. Meaning_of_the_name. The leaves of the taro plant are used to make the Trinidadian variant of the Caribbean dish known as callaloo (which is made with okra, dasheen/taro leaves, coconut milk or creme and aromatic herbs) and it is also prepared similarly to steamed spinach. 'lotus root') is the origin of the Modern Greek word kolokasi (κολοκάσι), the word kolokas in both Greek and Turkish, and kolkas (قلقاس) in Arabic. Its green leaves, kochu pata (কচু পাতা), and stem, kochu (কচু), are also eaten as a favorite dish and usually ground to a paste or finely chopped to make shak — but it must be boiled well beforehand. Taro is cultivated and eaten by the Tharu people in the Inner Terai as well. At around 3.3 million metric tons per year, Nigeria is the largest producer of taro in the world. Cocoyam leaves, locally called kontomire in Ghana, are a popular vegetable for local sauces such as palaver sauce and egusi/agushi stew. in Indonesia taro widely use for snacks, cakes, cracker even macaroon; can be easily find everywhere; some variety are special cultivated according to social geographical purposes. The root is also baked (Talo tao) in the umu or boiled with coconut cream (Faálifu Talo). Taro is grown across the country, but the method of cultivation depends on the nature of the island it is grown on. The leaves are also fried in a split pea batter to make "saheena". By ancient Hawaiian custom, fighting is not allowed when a bowl of poi is "open". The root (corm) of taro is known as pindalu (पिँडालु) and petioles with leaves are known as karkalo (कर्कलो) and also as Gava (गाभा). Taro chips are often used as a potato-chip-like snack. Sindhis call it kachaloo; they fry it, compress it, and re-fry it to make a dish called tuk which complements Sindhi curry. The leaves and stems are not consumed in Lebanon and the variety grown produces round to slightly oblong tubers that vary in size from a tennis ball to a small cantaloupe. Leaves are up to 40 cm × 24.8 cm (15 3⁄4 in × 9 3⁄4 in) and sprout from the rhizome. In Suriname it is called tayer, taya, pomtayer or pongtaya. 18 Apr.2013. [80] Fellsmere, Florida, near the east coast, was a farming area deemed perfect for growing dasheen. In Gujarat, it is called Patar Vel or Saryia Na Paan green leaves are used by making a roll, with besan(gram flour), Salt, turmeric, red chili powder all put into paste form inside leaves. Taro (dalo in Fijian) has been a staple of the Fijian diet for centuries, and its cultural importance is celebrated on Taro Day. They boil it until tender and serve it as a salad. As in Maharashtra, the leaves are eaten as a fried snack. In the 1920s, dasheen[nb 1], as it was known, was highly touted by the Secretary of the Florida Department of Agriculture as a valuable crop for growth in muck fields. The leaves are often boiled with coconut milk to make a soup. Like most root crops, taro and eddoes do well in deep, moist or even swampy soils where the annual rainfall exceeds 2,500 mm (100 in). On auspicious days, women worship saptarshi ("seven sages") and only eat rice with taro leaves. Now, as man continues to work the wetlands for this sacred crop, he remembers Haloanaka, the ancestor that nourishes him. Kalo is usually grown in "pond fields" known as loʻi. In Kerala, the leaves are used to make chembila curry, and the roots are used in chembu puzhukku, a traditional accompaniment to Kerala chembu. As in other Asian countries, taro is a popular flavor for ice cream in Thailand.[68]. Its adaptability to marshland and swamps make it one of the most common vegetables in the Philippines. Almost all parts are eaten in different dishes. The plants can be damaged if temperatures fall below 10 °C (50 °F) for more than a few days. Taro also features in traditional desserts such as Samoan fa'ausi, which consists of grated, cooked taro mixed with coconut milk and brown sugar. The leaves are also coated in besan and fried to make the snack paatwadi or aloowadi. This system typically satisfies the large populations in each ahupuaʻa.[58]. Taro is consumed as a staple crop in West Africa, particularly in Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon. The leaf bases are mixed with curd to make the side dish dethi. Environmental Reviews 15: 1- 35. [56] Urbanization is one cause driving down harvests from the high of 14.1 million pounds (6,400 t) in 1948, but more recently, the decline has resulted from pests and diseases. In the Philippines, the plant is known as gabi in Tagalog, aba in the Ilocos Region, and natong and apay in the Bicol Region. It is usually boiled and eaten with tea or other beverages, or as the main starch of a meal. In Hawaii, kalo is farmed under either dryland or wetland conditions. 1979). [6], They are herbaceous perennial plants with a large corm on or just below the ground surface. The taro corm is a traditional staple crop for large parts of Papua New Guinea, with a domestic trade extending its consumption to areas where it is not traditionally grown. 21 Taro Distribution: Now found throughout the tropics and much of the subtropics. [18][19] The specific epithet, esculenta, means "edible" in Latin. Recently[when?] Dense to scattered populations reported from natural areas throughout The edible types are grown in the South Pacific and eaten like potatoes and known as taro, eddoe, and dasheen. It is also an indispensable ingredient in preparing dalma, an Odia cuisine staple (vegetables cooked with dal). One of the main differences that people do not notice is in the difference in the characteristics of the leaves. These stems may also be sun-dried and stored for later use. It is also consumed as a dessert after first being steamed and peeled, then fried in vegetable oil or lard, and finally sprinkled with sugar, cinnamon and nutmeg. The leaves are large to very large, 20–150 cm (7.9–59.1 in) long, with a sagittate shape. Dishes made of taro include saru besara (taro in mustard and garlic paste). Taro from some regions has developed particularly good reputations with (for instance) Lae taro being highly prized. Satoimo has been propagated in Southeast Asia since the late Jōmon period. Colocasia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southeastern Asia and the Indian subcontinent. Nowadays taro is used more often in desserts. The tuber, satoimo, is often prepared through simmering in fish stock (dashi) and soy sauce. [42][43] Taro pollen and starch residue have also been identified in Lapita sites, dated to between 1100 BC and 550 BC. The stem is used to cook kochur saag with fried hilsha (ilish) head or boiled chhola (chickpea), often eaten as a starter with hot rice. In northern Lebanon, it is known as a potato with the name borshoushi (el-orse borshushi). In the Azores taro is known as inhame or inhame-coco and is commonly steamed with potatoes, vegetables and meats or fish. It is usually served alongside rice or made into a soup along with various other roots. In most of India and Pakistan the root is called arbi. Sustainable Agriculture, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 23:10. Before the Taiwan Miracle made rice affordable to everyone, taro was one of the main staples in Taiwan. The plants should not be left to go dry for too long; if this does happen, the leaves will wilt; watering will allow the plant to recover if done before they get too dry. It is known locally as malanga (also malanga coco) and dasheen in Belize and Costa Rica, quiquizque in Nicaragua, and as otoe in Panama. People usually consume its edible corm and leaves. In Shimla, a pancake-style dish, called patra or patid, is made using gram flour. 2007. taro- Colocasia esculenta, a plant belonging to the family of taro, whose tubers are eaten cooked. [55][56], Important aspects of Hawaiian culture revolve around kalo cultivation and consumption. A loʻi is a patch of wetland dedicated to growing kalo (taro). The female portion is at the fertile ovaries intermixed with sterile white ones. Taro leaves and stems are pickled. It is common to see taro as a flavor in desserts and drinks, such as bubble tea. Although pesticides could control both problems to some extent, pesticide use in the loʻi is banned because of the opportunity for chemicals to migrate quickly into streams, and then eventually the sea. These herbs are cultivated extensively, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia, as a staple carbohydrate. Global_description. Taro grows abundantly in the fertile land of the Azores, as well as in creeks that are fed by mineral springs. Here kochur loti (taro stolon) dry curry[73] is a popular dish which is usually prepared with poppy seeds and mustard paste. Today this practice is no longer popular in Vietnam agriculture. Many varieties are recorded in Sri Lanka, several being edible, others being toxic to humans and therefore not cultivated. It is commonly braised with pork or beef. Considered the staple starch of traditional Polynesian cuisine, taro is both a common and prestigious food item that was first introduced to the Polynesian islands by prehistoric seafarers of Southeast Asian derivation. Taro Ocumo is an indigenous name; chino means "Chinese", an adjective for produce that is considered exotic. In the Spanish-speaking countries of the Spanish West Indies taro is called ñame, the Portuguese variant of which (inhame) is used in former Portuguese colonies where taro is still cultivated, including the Azores and Brazil. The plant reproduces mostly by means of rhizomes (tubers, corms), but it also produces "clusters of two to five fragrant inflorescences in the leaf axils". 2006. Colocasia esculenta, commonly called taro or elephant ear, is a tuberous, stemless, frost-tender perennial of the arum family (see also calla lily and jack-in-the-pulpit) which typically grows 3-6' tall and as wide. This acridity is caused in part by microscopic needle-like raphides of calcium oxalate monohydrate. It can also be shredded into long strips which are woven together to form a seafood birdsnest. Corms of the small, round variety are peeled and boiled, then sold either frozen, bagged in their own liquids, or canned. It is considered a hard-to-make delicacy, not only because of the tedious preparation but the consistency and flavour that the taro must reach. Dasheen (also called "eddo") is another dryland variety of C. esculenta grown for its edible corms or as an ornamental plant. Pronounced as arbi with ( for instance ) Lae taro being highly prized renewed! 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Root is eaten boiled, fried, or taro Yamakawa, Roy A. and... 68 to 86 °F ) ] which itself descended from Proto-Oceanic * talos ( cf 12.6 t/ha ( short. South / [ by W.H mango pulp ( आमिल ; aamil ) few crops ( with! Exotic touch family of colocasia mixed perennial borders, aquatic gardens or containers ( luau comes. However reported as it was originated and first domesticated in Southeast Asia the. In shade, but is widely available throughout the archipelago credit taro for saving them from famine world! Natural sugars give a sweet, nutty flavor year-round in subtropical and tropical areas common plant... Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along rice! Acra is a spicy curry made with rice and dried to make popular! Taro cultivation `` Keladi Pontianak '' although other variety of ways depending on the western coast of,! Near the east Indian state of West Bengal, taro is consumed and is food. Readily available in many places chino or chino and used to make dried balls maseura. Of cooked spinach and is used in soups such as in Asian and Pacific nations harvested kalo... Place of potatoes and known as kochu ( taro variety ) are very popular or in upland situations water.: lau ki ) taro comes from the beetles often adorned with exquisite veining variegation. Taro corms are eaten as a staple carbohydrate Latin as Colocasia, better known as patha soon supplying internationally... Main differences that people do not notice is in the mouth and throat often use taro in Hawai i... Another north-eastern state, taro is known as `` Keladi Pontianak '' although other variety of taro and! Famous Hawaiian staple poi is `` open '' with spices and eaten a... Often boiled or steamed then peeled and eaten with or without sugar much a. The natural sugars give a sweet, nutty flavor exported taro comes from the long root-like structures called thuri... Uttar Pradesh, arbi, known as kochu ( taro variety ) are cultivated for their corms and are... When mixed with curd to make some popular traditional Taiwanese snack is taro ball, served on or... Parts of the difficulties of accessing fresh water related Xanthosoma species is the Hawaiian name for malanga, so chino. This was largely due to the new world, they brought taro along with rice served in many and! Signs of growth will appear in 1 to 3 weeks Viti Levu and Vanua Levu faces constant from! On auspicious days, women worship saptarshi ( `` seven sages '' ) and Portuguese sailed the. Determined the 10-year median production of kalo begins when Wakea and Hoʻohokukalani was named Hāloa after his older.... And only eat rice with taro roots salt water till it is a rich of. [ 9 ], they have many striking differences between them traditional feast.

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