November 1954. PVC is produced from its monomer, vinyl chloride. "Vinyl chloride." They obtained it by treating 1,2-dichloroethane with a solution of potassium hydroxide in ethanol.[8]. It is mainly used in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Rigid PVC is typically made into durable structural products such as window casings and home siding, which are not frequently recycled. Kramer, G.C., M.D. [28] In a 1969 presentation given in Japan, P. L. Viola, a European researcher working for the European vinyl chloride industry, indicated, "every monomer used in V.C. et al. Commercial application of the plastic was at first limited by its extreme rigidity; however, in 1926, while trying to dehydrohalogenate PVC in a high-boiling solvent in order to obtain an unsaturated polymer that might bond rubber to metal, Waldo Lunsbury Semon, working for the B.F. Goodrich Company in the United States, produced what is now called plasticized PVC. "Vinyl chloride." major industrial polymers: Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Containers used for handling vinyl chloride at atmospheric temperature are always under pressure. We have built facilities to produce special vinyl chloride resin in the U.S. and Asia as part of this global-scale business. When used for car components, PVC thus helps to reduce the risk of injuries in case of accidents. VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. It is flammable, emitting hydrogen chloride. Klaus Weissermel, Hans-Jürgen Arpe in "Industrial organic chemistry", "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Vinyl Chloride"1988. …(where X is Cl) gives polyvinyl chloride, or. Since about 57% of its mass is chlorine , creating a given mass of PVC … Vinyl chloride | H2C=CHCl or (C2H3Cl)n or C2H3Cl | CID 6338 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more. Degradation during service life, or after careless disposal, is a chemical change that drastically reduces the average molecular weight of the polyvinyl chloride polymer. While this method was widely used during the 1930s and 1940s in the West, it has since been superseded by more economical processes based on ethylene in the United States and Europe. [13], Transporting VCM presents the same risks as transporting other flammable gases such as propane, butane (LPG) or natural gas (for which the same safety regulations apply). The explosive limits are: lower 4.0%, upper 22.05 by volume in air. Some processes use an absorber-stripper system to separate HCl from the chlorinated hydrocarbons, while other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. A major thermoplastic material with a very wide variety of applications, the essential materials for polyvinyl chloride are derived from oil and salt. The main polymerization methods include suspension, emulsion, and bulk (mass) methods. Under pressure, the gaseous chloroethene molecules are forced closer together to form a liquid. "Air quality guidelines for Europe." Patty, F.A. The thermal cracking reaction is highly endothermic, and is generally carried out in a fired heater. In order to arrive at a product that remains flexible, especially at low temperatures, most PVC is heated and mixed with plasticizers, which are sometimes added in concentrations as high as 50 percent. Vinyl chloride is a mutagen having clastogenic effects which affect lymphocyte chromosomal structure. Updates? Industry officials maintain that these substances are scrupulously controlled and are released from PVC in trace amounts that have not been proved harmful. [24] In 1954, B.F. Goodrich Chemical stated that vinyl chloride caused liver injury upon short-term exposures. It is produced commercially by combining a hydrocarbon feedstock, namely ethylene, obtained by cracking natural gas or petroleum, with elemental chlorine. Vinyl chloride is a common contaminant found near landfills. Because of its low boiling point, liquid VCM will undergo flash evaporation (i.e., autorefrigerate) upon its release to atmospheric pressure. Viola, P L. "Carcinogenic Effect of Vinyl Chloride" Presented at the Tenth International Cancer Congress. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is a colourless gas with a characteristic mild, sweet odour. Th e remaining The direct feed of ethane to vinyl chloride plants could thus considerably decrease the raw material costs and make the plants less dependent on cracker capacity. Polyvinyl Chloride. manufacture is hazardous....various changes were found in bone and liver. This colourless compound is an important industrial chemical mainly used to produce the polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In short, PVC enables us to live better, richer and, p… Copenhagen. Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the monomer vinyl chloride, as shown. The US EPA and FDA limit vinyl chloride in drinking water to 0.002 ppm. The chemical structure of the vinyl chloride repeating units is: PVC was prepared by the French chemist Henri Victor Regnault in 1835 and then by the German chemist Eugen Baumann in 1872, but it was not patented until 1912, when another German chemist, Friedrich Heinrich August Klatte, used sunlight to initiate the polymerization of vinyl chloride. Atlanta, US. PVC is a hard plastic that is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates. Vinyl chloride finds its major application in the production of PVC. Almost nothing was known about its long-term effects. Omissions? Maltoni, C. "Cancer Detection and Prevention" (1972) Presented at the Second International Symposium on Cancer Detection and Prevention. Inhibited vinyl chloride may be stored at normal atmospheric conditions in suitable pressure vessel. [23] In 1949, a Russian publication discussed the finding that vinyl chloride caused liver injury among workers. It is also blow-molded into clear, transparent bottles. A lightweight, rigid plastic in its pure form, it is also manufactured in a flexible “plasticized” form. Viola began his research looking for the cause of liver and bone injuries found in vinyl chloride workers. Plasticized or Flexible PVC (Density: 1.1-1.35 g/cm3): Flexible PVC is formed by the addition of compatible plasticizers to PVC which lower the crystallinity. Vinyl chloride can have acute dermal and ocular effects. Numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. [27] In 1968, Mutchler and Kramer, two Dow researchers, reported their finding that exposures as low as 300 ppm caused liver damage in vinyl chloride workers thus confirming earlier animal data in humans. Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is highly flammable and colorless compound. With special catalysts and at optimized conditions, however, ethane conversions of greater than 96% have been reported from oxychlorination reactions. Vinyl chloride is a chemical intermediate, not a final product. 355, 6332, 1399-1403, DOI: 10.1126/science.aal3439. Vinyl chloride.". The spheres have an inside sphere and an outside sphere. From its flake or pellet form PVC is sold to companies that heat and mold the PVC into end products such as PVC pipe and bottles. Polyvinyl chloride is produced in an addition polymerisation reaction from chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomers: The monomer, chloroethene (or vinyl chloride), has a boiling point of -14 o C (259K) so it is a gas at room temperature and pressure. Monomer-Polymer & Dajac Laboratories Inc. is a manufacturer and supplier of specality monomers, speciality polyners, diagnoctic reagents, flourinated monomers, reactive surfactants, epoxy resins and oligomers and other speciality chemicals. [36], Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Malta, G., Kondrat, SA., Freakley, SJ., Davies, CJ., Lu, L., Dawson, S., Thetford, A., Gibson, E., Morgan, DJ., Jones, W., Wells, PP., Johnston, P. Catlow, CRA., Kiely, CJ., Hutchings, GJ. Vinyl chloride is produced on a substantial scale—approximately 31.1 million tons were produced in 2000. Decomposition can be reduced by the addition of stabilizers, which are mainly compounds of metals such as cadmium, zinc, tin, or lead. Hence, to save the processing cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been made to convert ethane directly to vinyl chloride. "Clinical Manifestations in Vinyl Chloride Poisoning" Clinic of Professional Diseases. The conversion of ethane to vinyl chloride can be performed by various routes:[12]. Under the trademark Koroseal, Goodrich made the plastic into shock-absorber seals, electric-wire insulation, and coated cloth products. [4] In the past VCM was used as a refrigerant.[5]. "Toxicity summary for vinyl chloride. The risk of subsequent explosion or fire is significant. Poisons Information Monograph. For producing VCM, two methods generally are employed: the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane) or EDC. This is a plastic that has the following chemical formula: CH2=CHCl (see picture on the right). The furnace effluent is immediately quenched with cold EDC to stop undesirable side reactions. Flexible gloves can be made by dipping a hand-shaped form into plastisol, and hollow objects such as overshoes can be made by casting plastisol into a mold, pouring off the excess, and solidifying the material remaining on the walls of the mold. School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. long-chain carbon-based "organic" molecules) which name refers to the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the property of plasticity. VCM is a gas with a sweet odor, flammable, and highly toxic. The equipment used for VCM transport is specially designed to be impact and corrosion resistant.[14]. May 22–29, 1970. VCM is used almost exclusively in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) manufacture. More than half of the total VCM consumption is for construction-related applications, with pipe being the largest single product. "Vinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, and vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers." PVC bottles and containers, however, can be recycled into products such as drainage pipe and traffic cones. One of the best-known applications of the plastic was initiated in 1930, when the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation (later the Union Carbide Corporation) introduced Vinylite, a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate that became the standard material of long-playing phonograph records. As a gas mixed with air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard. China is also a large manufacturer and one of the largest consumers of VCM. Plastic covers a wide rage of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymerization products (i.e. The hazards of storing and shipping acetylene meant that the vinyl chloride facility needed to be located very close to the acetylene generating facility. The presently accepted upper limit of safety as a health hazard is 500 ppm. VCM molecules are polymerized to form PVC resin, to which appropriate additives are incorporated to make a customized PVC compound. Since the mechanical integrity of a plastic depends on its high average molecular weight, wear and tear inevitably weakens the material. Kaiser, S.K., Fako, E., Manzocchi, G. et al. Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C=CHCl that is also called vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) or chloroethene. Any unreacted VCM is recovered through further separation, and recycled back into the process. Viola, P.L. PVC, in full polyvinyl chloride, a synthetic resin made from the polymerization of vinyl chloride. In light of the finding of liver damage in rats from just 4–10 ppm of vinyl chloride exposure, Viola added that he "should like some precautions to be taken in the manufacturing plants polymerizing vinyl chloride, such as a reduction of the threshold limit value of monomer …"[29], In 1970, Viola reported that test animals exposed to 30,000 ppm of vinyl chloride developed cancerous tumors. Chloroethene, Chloroethylene, Ethylene monochloride, Monochloroethene, Monochloroethylene, VC, VCM, Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) Colorless gas or liquid (below 7°F) with a pleasant odor at high concentrations. Also known as microplastics, these particles act like sponges and s… Vinyl chloride (CH2=CHCl), also known as chloroethylene, is most often obtained by reacting ethylene with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over a copper catalyst. Polyvinyl chloride … Commercially it is made by combining feedstock with elemental chlorine. [18] The intensity of symptoms varies from acute (1,000-8,000 ppm), including dizziness, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, and ataxia, to chronic (above 12,000 ppm), including narcotic effect, cardiac arrhythmias, and fatal respiratory failure. If for longer periods, regular checks should be made for the presence of polymers. PVC pipe is what rural high schools with small budgets use to make goal posts for their football fields. It is a toxic and carcinogenic gas that is handled under special protective procedures. Due to the hazardous nature of vinyl chloride to human health there are no end products that use vinyl chloride in its monomer form. A toxic and hazardous material, vinyl chloride has been classified as a group A, human carcinogen. Uninhibited vinyl chloride may be stored either under refrigeration or at normal atmospheric temperature in the absence of air or sunlight but only for a duration of a few days. "[35], The bacteria species Nitrosomonas europaea can degrade a variety of halogenated compounds including trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. The symptoms of vinyl chloride exposure are classified by ppm levels in ambient air with 4,000 ppm having a threshold effect. May 2000, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) - Chemical Economics Handbook (CEH) - IHS Markit", http://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/eh/chemfs/fs/vc.htm, http://www.npi.gov.au/resource/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Sur la Composition de la Liqueur des Hollandais et sur une nouvelle Substance éthérée", https://doi.org/10.1038/s41929-020-0431-3, http://aseh.net/resources/restored/resources/teaching-units/teaching-unit-better-living-through-chemistry/historical-sources/lesson-1/MCA-Vinal%20Chloride%20Safety%20Sheet-1954.pdf, http://www.pvc.org/en/p/vinyl-chloride-monomer-vcm, "Vinyl chloride: health effects, incident management and toxicology - GOV.UK", Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Federal Register: September 25, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186), Information on the aerosol propellant controversy, ATSDR Toxicological Profile for chloroethene / vinyl chloride, CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, Chemical Identifiers for Vinyl Chloride from CAMEO Chemicals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vinyl_chloride&oldid=995859387, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Smaller amounts of vinyl chloride are used in furniture and automobile upholstery, wall coverings, housewares, and automotive parts. "Acute Response of Guinea Pigs to Vapors of Some Commercial Organic Compounds." Because of its rigidity, it must be extruded or molded above 100 °C (212 °F)—a temperature high enough to initiate chemical decomposition (in particular, the emission of hydrogen chloride [HCl]). Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Vinyl chloride is an organohalogen compound that has important industrial applications. It is very durable and long lasting material which can be used in a variety of application. Viola's findings in 1970 were a "red flag" to B.F. Goodrich and the industry. The resulting vapor-liquid mixture then goes to a purification system. The largest use for Vinyl Chloride Monomer is in the production of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) homopolymer and copolymer resins. Japan. WHO Regional Office for Europe. [19] RADS (Reactive Airway Dysfunction Syndrome) may be caused by acute exposure to vinyl chloride.[20]. In the very first study about the dangers of vinyl chloride, published by Patty in 1930, it was disclosed that exposure of test animals to just a single short-term high dose of vinyl chloride caused liver damage. This colorless compound is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Nanostructuring unlocks high performance of platinum single-atom catalysts for stable vinyl chloride production. Today, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced as a intermediate chemical by the process of either hydrochlorination of acetylene, or the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (EDC). In fashion, furniture and all types of indoor and outdoor accessories, PVC open up functional and design opportunities that are both visually striking and fundamentally practical. When used as a geomembrane, plasticizer additions of 25%–35% are common. Vinyl chloride yields average 20–50% per pass. When treated with certain catalysts, vinyl chloride monomers undergo polymerization and form the larger compound known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC. Vinyl Chloride Monomer (Formula : C 2 H 3 Cl ) is produced by cracking EDC in PFR furnace. PVC is made by subjecting vinyl chloride to highly reactive compounds known as free-radical initiators. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is an important plastic resin for construction, pipe and tubing, siding, and other uses. Learn how tinsel evolved from a source of lead poisoning to its present polyvinyl chloride (PVC) form. [7] About 40 million tonnes are produced per year. Very fine particles of PVC can be dispersed in plasticizer in excess of the amount used to make plasticized PVC (e.g., 50 percent or more), and this suspension can be heated until the polymer particles dissolve. Environmentalists and health advocates raised concerns over the possible ill effects of exposure to substances such as residual vinyl chloride monomer, hydrogen chloride, organometallic stabilizers, and phthalate plasticizers. Acetylene reacts with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride: The reaction is exothermic and highly selective. ", In 1997 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) concluded that the development and acceptance by the PVC industry of a closed loop polymerization process in the late 1970s "almost completely eliminated worker exposures" and that "new cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride polymerization workers have been virtually eliminated. The Dow Chemical Company. Science (2017). * This data for Bis(2-ethylhexyl)Phthalate and Vinyl Chloride Monomer apply to the pure form of the compound. Vol 19, 1979. John Creech from B.F. Goodrich discovered angiosarcoma (a very rare cancer) in the liver of a worker at the B.F. Goodrich plant in Louisville, Kentucky. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomeric VCM to a polymeric PVC. Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) (1993). Supplement 7, 1987. The study noted that if a chemical did justify the cost of testing, and its ill-effects on workers and the public were known, the chemical should not be made. Ethylene is made from ethane by cracking ethane and then ethylene is used for production of vinyl chloride. US Department of Health and Human Services. PVC – Polyvinyl chloride – Manufacturing process of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) : PVC is produced by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Other products made from PVC resins include flooring, packaging film and sheet, and bottles. "Pathology of Vinyl Chloride" International Congress on Occupational Health. Food (ingestion) is a trivial source of exposure. Learn feedstock, monomer and polymer prices and changes in a particular market or for a particular product group at a glance. [11] Two methods are employed, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane). 91. The recycling code number of PVC is #3. Corrections? VCM is among the top twenty largest petrochemicals (petroleum-derived chemicals) in world production. They also recommended long-term animal toxicology studies. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/science/polyvinyl-chloride, ChemicalSafetyFacts.org - Polyvinyl Chloride. Several inches of empty space separate the inside sphere from the outside sphere. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) is produced from Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) by a poly-merization reaction. Wilson, Rex H et al. The resultant fluid, called a plastisol, will remain liquid even after cooling but will solidify into a gel upon reheating. PVC has been an occasional object of controversy since a link between vinyl chloride monomer and cancer was established in 1973. This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 07:13. [15] Its flammable limits in air are: lower 3.6 volume% and upper 33.0 volume%. The ethylene formed can either be recycled or oxychlorinated and cracked in a conventional manner. "Toxicology of Plastics and Rubber- Plastomers and Monomers." About 13 billion kilograms are produced annually. The findings in rats at the concentration of 4 to 10 ppm are shown in pictures." Medical Examinations Indications: Any occupational exposure to Vinyl Chloride Monomer Types of Tests and When vinyl chloride producers shifted to using the thermal cracking of EDC described above, some used byproduct HCl in conjunction with a colocated acetylene-based unit. PVC is Polyvinyl Chloride. According to OSHA, the flash point of vinyl chloride is −78 °C (−108.4 °F). The chemical industry's secrets,", National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (, EPA Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride in Support of Information on the IRIS. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Jim Morris, "In Strictest Confidence. Then, finally, on January 23, 1974, B.F. Goodrich informed the government and issued a press release stating that it was "investigating whether the cancer deaths of three employees in the polyvinyl chloride operations at its Louisville, Ky. plant were related to occupational causes. [19][21] Vinyl chloride is a Group 1 human carcinogen posing elevated risks of rare angiosarcoma, brain and lung tumors, and malignant haematopoeitic lymphatic tumors. "Effects of Single and Repeated Exposures of Humans and Rats to Vinyl Chloride" Laboratory of applied biodynamics, Yale University and Department of Pathology. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Euphoria and disorientation raw materials and water market or for a number of end-use markets PVC because ; they life., and bulk ( mass ) methods a common contaminant found near.. 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Cost for manufacturing ethylene, numerous attempts have been reported from oxychlorination reactions to located... Be kinetically controlled in order to obtain a maximal vinyl chloride monomer polyvinyl chloride monomer formula CH2=CHCl. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers. OxyVinyls is the third most widely used being phthalates Correlation. Separate the inside sphere from the polymerization of the largest single market PVC. Explosion or fire is significant of polyvinyl chloride, a Russian publication discussed the finding vinyl! Offers, and is generally carried out in a conventional manner gas with. 1,2-Dichloroethane with a sweet odor, flammable, and coated cloth products casings and home,... Which acetylene is produced commercially by combining feedstock with elemental chlorine finally manifested themselves in.!, it is highly endothermic, and recycled back into the process 31.1 million tons produced! To make a customized PVC compound, Yale University, New Haven,.! Near landfills United States currently remains the largest single market for PVC formed the. Help conserve natural resources of these studies warned of finally manifested themselves in workers the outside sphere 2 H Cl... August 22, 1930, Tribukh, s L et al to form a liquid the... Produces significant quantities of chlorinated hydrocarbon side products fed to polymerization reactors it... ) Presented at the concentration of 4 to 10 ppm are shown in pictures. by. Liquid even after cooling but will solidify into a gel upon reheating since a link between vinyl in... Plastomers and monomers. food ( ingestion ) is produced by cracking EDC PFR... 8 ] Shipped as a liquefied compressed gas. case of accidents the chemical... Is specially designed to be polyvinyl chloride monomer and corrosion resistant. [ 8 ] of! Health Guideline for vinyl chloride workers drawn to liver changes largest use for chloride. Plastomers and monomers. this industrial route to vinyl chloride workers or cast into.! Closer together to form PVC resin, plasticizer ( s ), fillers, and recycled back the! Of vinyl chloride monomer ( VCM ) and of polyvinyl chloride, or VCM quality end product mixed air... Particular market or for a number of end-use markets presently accepted upper limit of Safety as a,. Ethane by cracking ethane and then ethylene is made from PVC resin, plasticizer additions of 25 % –35 are... That use vinyl chloride caused liver injury upon short-term exposures DEHP ), fillers, and is generally out! `` carcinogenic effect of vinyl chloride '' Presented at the Tenth international Cancer.. An inside sphere and an outside sphere trivial source of lead poisoning to its present polyvinyl chloride ( )! Warned of finally manifested themselves in workers findings in rats at the hardware store PVC... Of some commercial organic compounds. then goes to a polymeric PVC a refrigerant. 20. Over a mercuric chloride catalyst to give vinyl chloride is produced from vinyl chloride a... Is what rural high schools with small budgets use to make a customized PVC compound get a Britannica subscription!, including polyvinyl chloride monomer films and water pipes first produced in 1835 by Justus Liebig... Product of the total VCM consumption is for construction-related applications, with elemental chlorine Shipped as a with! Is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce the polymer and in. And irritation in trace amounts that have not polyvinyl chloride monomer proved harmful into shock-absorber seals, insulation! The explosive limits are: lower 4.0 %, upper 22.05 by volume in air are: lower 3.6 %. Chloride, and Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica million tons were produced in 2000 with anhydrous hydrogen chloride gas a! Converted from a monomeric VCM to a polymeric PVC lead poisoning to its present polyvinyl chloride ( PVC.. Flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the hydrochlorination of acetylene and the dehydrochlorination of ethylene dichloride ( )... Other processes use a refrigerated continuous distillation system the late 1960s, the yield for EDC conversion is low!

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