Many encyclopedic sources and atlases will show Smenkhkare succeeding Akhenaten on the basis of tradition dating back to 1845, and some still conflate Smenkhkare with Neferneferuaten. Merit-Aten would have had no such need, nor would she need to adopt pharaonic airs such as a double cartouche simply to act on behalf of her husband. When Meritaten gave birth to a girl, Akhenaten may have then tried with Meketaten, whose death in childbirth is depicted in the royal tombs. Gershom Eliezer . The archaeological evidence relates to a woman who reigned as pharaoh toward the end of the Amarna Period during the Eighteenth Dynasty. If that is the case, she would only have been ten or eleven when she died in childbirth around year 14,[77] which is several years shy of the age when girls typically become able to conceive at age 13 (Akhenaten and his daughters may have suffered from a hereditary genetic condition called aromatase excess syndrome, which resulted in gynecomastia in males and premature sexual development in females,[78] making childbirth at 11 less improbable). The four royal daughters are all shown holding bouquets of flowers. [1] She had three older sisters named Meritaten, Meketaten, and Ankhesenpaaten (later known as Ankhesenamun), and two younger sisters named Neferneferure and Setepenre. When coupled with Neferneferuaten, the prenomen included an epithet referring to Akhenaten such as 'desired of Wa en Re'. His Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt) divided the rulers into dynasties, which forms the basis of the modern system of dating Ancient Egypt. She had been put forth by Rolf Krauss in 1973 to explain the feminine traces in the prenomen and epithets of Ankhkheprure and to conform to Manetho's description of a Akenkheres as a daughter of Oros. Allen suggests that perhaps Meketaten's first appearance—and perhaps that of the other daughters—was on the occasion of being weaned at age three in which case her age at death would be the more likely 13 or 14, an argument Dodson also adopts in Amarna Sunset. This theory is based on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti (now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums). As a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. [18] These were linked with a few items including a statuette found in Tutankhamun’s tomb depicting a king whose appearance was particularly feminine, even for Amarna art which seems to favor androgyny. [33] One theory from the 1970s held that Nefertiti was masquerading as the male King Smenkhkare,[34] a view still held by a few—as late as 2001 by Reeves [20] and until 2004 by Dodson. The scene was later adapted to include the Princesses Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten-tasherit. Tutankhamun. She is depicted sitting on her mother Nefertiti's lap. Neferneferuaten's successor seems to have denied her a king's burial and, later, in the reign of Horemheb, the entire Amarna period began to be regarded as anathema and the reigns of the Amarna period pharaohs from Akhenaten to Ay were expunged from history as these kings' total regnal years were assigned to Horemheb. [71], Details for the Dakhamunzu/Zannanza affair are entirely from Hittite sources written many years after the events. Evidence of her political importance is seen in the large number of carved scenes in which she is shown accompanying him during ceremonial acts. Her name means "beautiful" or "perfect", but her parentage is uncertain and nothing is … Setepenre: Year 11 (1339 BCE). Finally, Allen has used the wine docket and strong association of Neferneferuaten with Akhenaten in her epithets and on stelae to speculate that both may have succeeded Akhenaten, with one as a rival king. 2 yrs of joint rule). [1]Life. Giving worship to Amun, kissing the ground to Wenennefer by the lay priest, scribe of the divine offerings of Amun in the Mansion [temple] of Ankhkheperure in Thebes, Pawah, born to Yotefseneb. [original research?] She died before she reached the age of six, and was most likely the first of Akhenaten's children to die. Allen suggested that adopting the name Ankhkheperure was "to emphasize the legitimacy of Smenkh-ka-re's claim against that of Akhenaton's "chosen" (/mr/) coregent". It is possible that Neferneferuaten Tasherit was the one who may have been her father's co-regent and may have ruled as the female pharaoh, Neferneferuaten. Setepenre: Year 11. His teacher was most likely Sennedjem. [4], In the tomb of Huya, the chief Steward of Neferneferuaten's grandmother Queen Tiye, Neferneferuaten is shown in a family scene on a lintel on the north wall. [35], The apparent use of her name made her an obvious candidate even before Neferneferuaten's gender was firmly established. [56], Several interesting ideas worthy of consideration are offered, but the central assumption that Nefertiti was mother to Tutankhaten, has since been proven false. Cause of death: unspecified Remains: Mummified. He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters. There were no occasions where the ‘long’ versions of the prenomen occurred alongside the nomen 'Smenkhkare', nor was the ‘short’ version ever found associated with the nomen 'Neferneferuaten'. [2] She is known to have later married Pharaoh Smenkhare. In the fourth year of his reign (1346 BCE) Amenhotep IV started his worship of Aten. Two severed arms had been located within KV35, and either one was thought likely to belong to the Younger Lady. There are many theories regarding her death and burial but, to date, the mummy of this famous queen, her parents, or her children has not been found or formally identified. Neferneferuaten was born between ca. There is no word of her after that date. Neferneferure: Year 9. X-rays of Tutankhamun's skull. [1] Although few Egyptologists endorsed the whole hypothesis, many did accept her at times as the probable or possible candidate for a female Ankhkheprure ruling for a time after Smenkhkare's death and perhaps, as regent to Tutankhaten.[61]. Kiya was one of the wives of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Theories include sudden death by a plague that was sweeping through the city or another natural death. Meritaten as Ankhetkheperure, but upon the death of her husband Semenkhkare. Evidence suggesting this includes: This theory has been shown to be incorrect, however, since Nefertiti is now known to have still been alive in Year 16 of Akhenaten—the second-to-last year of her husband's reign. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 6 (1344 BC), possibly later became Pharaoh Nefernferuaten. This also seems to be indicated by her designation as "mistress" of the royal house in Amarna Letter EA 11. Setepenre: Year 11. "[60], Meritaten as a candidate for Neferneferuaten seems to be the most fluid, taking many forms depending on the views of the Egyptologist. [49] This would also affect various details of the Amarna succession theories proposed. Setepenre — year 9. (re: coregency stela UC 410 + Carter box 1k) Sole monarch by this name in Pairi graffito TT139 gives her year 3 of rule (incl. The various steles, for instance, strongly suggest a female coregent but offer nothing conclusive as to her identity. year 8 and 9 of her father's reign. Amenhotep III. How to say Neferneferuaten in English? "[72], In 2006, James Allen proposed a new reading of events. [24] His reading was later confirmed by James Allen. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8, possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Some are even spelled the same. The same tomb inscription mentions an Amun temple in Thebes, perhaps a mortuary complex, which would seem to indicate that the Amun proscription had abated and the traditional religion was being restored toward the end of her reign. [45] The barely-legible five-line text, found in a limestone quarry at Deir el-Bersha, was deciphered and interpreted [46] [26] Finally, a few of her cartouches bear unique epithets not associated with Akhenaten at all. Since Nefertiti has now been confirmed to be living as late as Year 16 of Akhenaten's reign in a 2014 journal paper, however, the Meritaten theory becomes less likely because she would no longer be the most likely living person to be using either the name Neferneferuaten nor "Effective for her husband" as the epithet of a ruling female pharaoh. As there is no evidence as to when or where he died nor that he was murdered, Gabolde believes that he completed the trip and died only after ascending the throne as Smenkhkare. Even among Egyptologists who advocate Nefertiti as Neferneferuaten, the exact nature of her reign can vary. Ring bezels and scarabs bearing his name found, only show the city was still inhabited during his reign. Nefertiti first appears in scenes in Thebes. [22] He pointed out the name 'Ankhkheperure' was rendered differently depending on whether it was associated with Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten. He notes that while Akhenaten, Neferneferuaten, and even Smenkhkare are attested as kings in Amarna, evidence for Tutankhaten is limited to some bezel rings. It is likely that she was born in Akhetaten, the capital founded by her father. Among them Carter 261p(1), a stunning gold pectoral depicting the goddess Nut. A Contribution to the Study of the Later Years of Nefertiti, Journal of Egyptian History (JEH) 7 (2014), pp.72-73 & 76-77, van der Perre, JEH 7 (2014) pp.82-87 & 96-102, A. van der Perre, JEH 7 (2014), pp.101-102, William J. Murnane, The End of the Amarna Period Once Again’, Orientalistische Literaturzeitung (OLZ) Vol. Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten [Monarch and coregent] By this name from year 16 of Akhenaten, until his death, for 1 - 2 yrs max? Other items include the stone sarcophagus, mummy wrappings, royal figurines; canopic items (chest, coffinettes, and jar stoppers), various bracelets and even shabti figures. Neferneferuaten Tasherit Neferneferure Setepenre. Meketaten was the second daughter born to Akhenaten and Nefertiti.She had an older sister named Meritaten and four younger sisters named Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure and Setepenre.Tutankhaten was a half-brother. [2] That is, a division in the royal house put Smenkhkare on the throne as a rival king to Neferneferuaten. Since Tutankamun was alive and of royal lineage, Meritaten's actions almost certainly must be taken as intending to prevent his ascension. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is a name that keeps popping up as the mystery queen who came after Akhenaten. Kiya, a dark queen of the period. Ankhkheperure-mery-Neferkheperure/-Waenre/-Aten Neferneferuaten was a name used to refer to either Meritaten or, more likely, Nefertiti. After his death, she adopts full pharoanic prerogatives to continue to rule as King Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. This can be taken to indicate Neferneferuaten is also an individual apart from Nefertiti based on the general difference, or to indicate they are the same person on the basis of the unique rendering in the presence of the seated-person determinative (see below). If this person is Nefertiti ruling as sole pharaoh, it has been theorized by Egyptologist and Archaeologist Dr. Zahi Hawass that her reign was marked by the fall of Amarna and relocation of the capital back to the traditional city of Thebes.[4]. Life. [30][39][62] The reasons for this remain speculation, as does a regency with Tutankhaten. English: Tutankhamun named Tutankhaten early in his life, was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (1334 BC/1333 BC - 1323 BC), during the period known as the New Kingdom. Nefertiti was an early candidate for King Neferneferuaten, first proposed in 1973 by J. R. Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen. [70] For the plot to succeed, it assumes the young Meritaten with her co-conspirators successfully deceived Suppiluliuma and his envoys (for there was a royal male - Tutankhamun - though not actually her son) and that the plot remained secret during the period of letter writing and Zannanza's travel to Egypt. Dodson proposes that, in that role, Neferneferuaten helped guide the reformation in the early years of Tutankhaten and conjectures that her turn around is the result of her 'rapid adjustment to political reality'. Manetho's Epitome, a summary of his work, describes the late Eighteenth Dynasty succession as "Amenophis for 30 years 10 months",[6] who seems likely to be Amenhotep III. Wine dockets from her estate decline and cease after year 13. Cause of death: unspecified. King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Lord of the Two Lands, Ankhkheperure Mery-Neferkheperre [14][15], King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Living in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, Neferkheperure-Waenre, Son of Re, Living in Truth, Lord of Crowns, Akhenaten, Great in his duration Marc Gabolde contends that Tutankhaten never reigned for more than a few months at Amarna. If the reference to a 'servant' no longer exclusively indicates Ay, then Meritaten and Nefertiti become candidates as well, since neither has sons known to us. Talk:Neferneferuaten. An alternative view held that Nefertiti was King Neferneferuaten, in some versions she is also masquerading as a male using the name Smenkhkare. She is holding an object which is too damaged to identify. The Hittite king is wary and sends an envoy to verify the lack of a male heir. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8, possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten. Close-up of a limestone relief depicting Nefertiti smiting a female captive on a royal barge. She is shown taking … His paper on "The Amarna Succession" is his first theory as to identity of King Neferneferuaten, having previously cited Nefertiti or Meritaten as the probable or possible identity depending on the state of the evidence. One implication then, is there may have been resistance to the choice of Neferneferuaten, or such resistance was anticipated. Allen later showed that Neferneferuaten's epithets were of three types or sets. Other women who have been suggested as candidates for the identity of this female ruler are Queen Nefertiti (her mother) and her older sister Meritaten. Reeves sees Nefertiti ruling independently for some time before Tutankhamun and has identified her as Dahamunzu of the Hittite letter-writing episode. Dodson, Aidan, Amarna Sunset: Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation. This theory is based on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti (now located in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums). Is she and princess Neferneferuaten Tasherit one … In front of her, amongst courtiers, stand Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their three remaining daughters, Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit. A number of items in Tutankhamun's tomb (KV62) were originally intended for Neferneferuaten. Aldred, Cyril, Akhenaten: King of Egypt ,Thames and Hudson, 1991 (paperback). Setepenre: Year 11. [9][65] Most name changes in the Amarna period involved people incorporating -Aten into their name or removing an increasingly offensive -Amun element. Neferneferuaten translation in English-Vietnamese dictionary. The use of epithets (or lack of them) to identify the king referenced in an inscription eventually became widely accepted among scholars and regularly cited in their work [25] although a case for exempting a particular inscription or instance will occasionally be argued to support a larger hypothesis. The list is mostly from written texts (Hebrew news sites, Hebrew wikipedia, science, sports, international, some literature, etc.) Language; Watch; Edit; Active discussions This article is of interest to the following WikiProjects: WikiProject Ancient Egypt (Rated Start-class, Mid-importance) This article is within the scope of WikiProject Ancient Egypt, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of Egyptological subjects on Wikipedia. At some point, perhaps to start his sole reign, he changed his name to Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten. Each of the leading candidates have their own proponents among Egyptologists, whose work can be consulted for more information and many more details for a given candidate. children: Ankhesenamun, Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit, Meketaten, Meritaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure, Setepenre, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun. The focus now shifts to the identity of Neferneferuaten, with each candidate having its own advocate(s), a debate which may never be settled to the satisfaction of all. Dodson then speculates that she may later have shared Tutankhamun's regnal dating, in effect deferring senior status at least nominally to him. [73] Meritaten-tasherit and Ankhesenpaaten-tasherit bear the titles 'King’s daughter of his body, his desired...' and 'born of King’s daughter of his body, his desired...'. The strong point of the theory rests with her name: it does not rely on someone changing their name in some awkward fashion to assume the role of Neferneferuaten. The daughters of the royal couple are shown standing behind their parents. Most recently, he has proposed that Meritaten was raised to coregent of Akhenaten in his final years. [2] He suggested that the almost constant references to Akhenaten, in particular the 'desired of Akhenaten' versions, may be proclamations of legitimacy on the part of Neferneferuaten. [62] This view places Smenkhkare after Neferneferuaten, which requires the Meryre depiction to be drawn 5–6 years after the 'Durbar' depiction it is alongside, and several years after work on tombs had stopped. Sicha Zoremet - tips. She is shown standing in the building near the window of appearance as her parents, Akhenaten and Nefertiti, bestow honors upon the first servant of the Aten named Panehesy. #313 ‘Binyanim’ That Cause Confusion Listen. Secondly, both Aidan Dodson and the late Bill Murnane have stressed that the female ruler Neferneferuaten and Meritaten /Meryetaten cannot be the same person. Later, the French Egyptologist Marc Gabolde noted that several items from the tomb of Tutankhamun, which had been originally inscribed for Neferneferuaten and read as "...desired of Ahkenaten" were originally inscribed as Akhet-en-hyes or "effective for her husband". This was offered as a simple and logical reading of the evidence to explain the nature of the epithets, the use of identical prenomens by successive kings and that she was denied a royal burial. She was the fourth of six known daughters of the royal couple Neferneferure: Year 9 (1341 BC). Many Egyptologists believe she also served as coregent on the basis of the stela and epithets, with advocates for Meritaten being notable exceptions. The prenomen (left column) and nomen (right column) forms for Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten[2][28][29][30] by Kiya . - pp.12-19, Athena van der Perre, The Year 16 graffito of Akhenaten in Dayr Abū Ḥinnis. Tyldesley, Joyce. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure. She was the fourth of six known daughters of the royal couple. Gender: Female Religion: Other Race or Ethnicity: Middle Eastern Occupation: Royalty. 60 was a ripe old age in those days given the less evolved knowledge of healthcare, and sciences that have made longer life possible in modern times (pasteurization and immunization as examples). As Miller states, they were "written in full knowledge of the scheme’s dismal failure, and one cannot dismiss the possibility that Mursili is revising history to some extent, placing full responsibility for the fiasco on the Egyptians, absolving his father of any blame for his failed gamble, giving the impression that he had done everything in his power to ensure that the way was free for Zannanza to take the Egyptian throne. Her sex is confirmed by feminine traces occasionally found in the name and by the epithet Akhet-en-hyes ("Effective for her husband"), incorporated into one version of her second cartouche.[1][2][3]. During the first five years of Amenhotep's reign, Nefertiti enjoyed a high profile. How the image of Nefertiti was changed to match the new inscription could settle matters if her image was not missing. She is shown on the walls of the royal tomb mourning the death of her elder sister Meketaten accompanied by Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten, so was presumably still alive at this time, which was around year 14. Sarit Hadad - Zormim . From Amarna, Egypt. The highly equivocal nature of the evidence often renders it suggestive of something, while falling short of proving it. Based on the Pairi inscription dated to her Third Regnal Year, it appears she enjoyed a sole reign. The queen writes back, rebuking Suppiluliuma for suggesting she lied about a son and indicates she is loath to marry a "servant" (as she was being pressed to do). The fresco is much damaged and only a small hand of Setepenre remains The fresco is dated to ca. Replacing the name Nefertiti with the name King Neferneferuaten in a depiction of the royal family, still seems to favor Nefertiti as the new king. He adopts the name Smenkhkare,[Note 2] and her throne name. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8. In marrying her, the son will become King of Egypt. Her sisters are Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre. Her sisters Neferneferure and Setepenre are standing behind her. Her name Neferneferuaten ("Beauty of the Beauties of Aten" or "Most Beautiful One of Aten") is the exact copy of the name Nefertiti took in the 5th regnal year. Several of the works of Nicholas Reeves and Aidan Dodson advocate for Nefertiti as Neferneferuaten. In 1988, James P. Allen proposed that it was possible to separate Smenkhkare from Neferneferuaten. Then "his son Orus for 36 years 5 months", this is often seen as a corruption of the name Horemheb with the entire Amarna period attributed to him, but others see Orus as Akhenaten. [5], She is depicted at the Durbar in year 12 in the tomb of the Overseer of the royal quarters Meryre II in Amarna. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 8. Cause of death. The American University in Cairo Press. These include "desired of the Aten" and "The Ruler".[2]. Tamouz - Pa Kiya. Family. Manetho was a priest in the time of the Ptolemies in the third century BC. [30][39][62] Since much of her funeral equipment was used in Tutankhamen's burial, it seems fairly certain she was denied a pharaonic burial by her successor. It is not known with certainty when the tomb owner died or if he may have lived on to serve a new king. For some time the accepted interpretation of the evidence was that Smenkhkare served as coregent with Akhenaten beginning about year 15 using the throne name Ankhkheperure. The king led this religious revolution, in which Nefertiti played a prominent role. [1] It is possible she was one of the persons buried in chamber The text is said to be badly damaged, but a doctoral student read the text to indicate a date from regnal year sixteen of Akhenaten and noted that it mentions Nefertiti as Akhenaten's chief wife. [1][5], It is unknown what became of Neferneferuaten Tasherit, but it has been suggested she died before Tutankhamun and Ankhesenpaaten came to the throne. Based on the grounds of its location and state of completion, Dodson thinks that the depiction of Smenkhkare in the tomb of Meryre cannot date to later than Year 13/14 or Year 14/15 of Akhenaten at the latest. The extended scene shows Akhenaten and Nefertiti on the left with their four eldest daughters, while on the right hand side Amenhotep III, Queen Tiye and princess Baketaten are shown. Citing the evidence above, he finds it likely Nefertiti died after year 13. Not proofs, but not in any sense implausible. [20][39][62] Whether she reigned before or after Smenkhkare depends on the underlying theory as to her identity. Acencheres is Ankhkheperure according to Gabolde,[7] with a transcription error assumed which converted 2 years, 1 month into the 12 years, 1 month reported (Africanus and Eusebius cite 32 and 16 years for this person) by the addition of 10 years. 3 Death and burial; 4 Other objects mentioning Neferneferure; 5 References; Family Neferneferure was born in or before the 8th regnal year of her father Akhenaten in the city of Akhetaten. By the late twentieth century, there was "'a fair degree of consensus'"[31] that Neferneferuaten was a female king and Smenkhkare a separate male king, particularly among specialists of the period,[32] although the public and the internet references still often commingle the two. It changed Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a henotheistic religion. Again we cannot be certain what happened to Neferneferuaten; when she died or what was the cause of her death. On the other hand, advocates for Smenkhkare may make the case that since she attested as queen just before the start of Akhenaten's final regnal year, then Smenkhkare is more likely to be Akhenaten's successor. Neferneferuaten Tasherit or Neferneferuaten the younger (14th century BCE) was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th Dynasty and the fourth daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. [19] There are several stele depicting a king along with someone else—often wearing a king's crown—in various familiar, almost intimate scenes. Meketaten is believed to have been born about year 4 when is she first depicted. She was the fourth of six known daughters of the royal couple. Continue Reading Below. Most Egyptologists see two names, indicating two individual people, as the simplest and more likely view. James Allen's previous work in this area primarily dealt with establishing the female gender of Neferneferuaten and then as an individual apart from Smenkhkare. They had six daughters and, according to some, one son. Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year 6 (1344 BCE) Neferneferure: Year 9 (1341 BCE). Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (/ˌnɛfərˈtiːti/) (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. [52] If accepted, Smenkhkare cannot have had an independent reign and thus, Neferneferuaten must have come after him,[53] the result being that Smenkhkare's reign is entirely that of a coregent, ending about a year later, in Year 14 or 15 of Akhenaten's reign. (However, Smenkhkare may have been Aye’s son) Tutankhaten (Tutankhamun) (Nebkheperture) Kiya-tasherit. The fourth set are from the hieratic inscription from the tomb of Pairi (TT139) which seems to have a feminine marker in the nomen's epithet. (This woman is thought to be Kiya by some Egyptologist, but this is by no means certain.) Also, the Mizuno Softball Series only comes in one web type. Go the distance with the right running gear! These continue to be key elements to various theories today. Münster 2011, S. 301–331, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 13:18. Many specialists in the period believe the epigraphic evidence strongly indicates she acted for a time as Akhenaten's coregent. Neferneferuaten-tasherit's age is the first objection often raised. year 8 and 9 of her father's reign. The presence of a royal baby causes many to believe the young princess died in childbirth (in this case the father is most likely to have been Akhenaten himself, marrying his daughter), but it cannot be proven. Neferneferuaten Tasherit or Neferneferuaten the younger (14th century BCE) was an ancient Egyptian princess of the 18th Dynasty and the fourth daughter of Pharaoh Akhenaten and his Great Royal Wife Nefertiti. Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhes-en-pa-aten, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, Neferneferure, and Setepenre were the daughters of Nefertiti and Pharaoh Akhenaten. The evidence of this tradition argues that the coregent bore the name Neferneferuaten before her coronation, and since it now seems clear that the coregent was not Nefertiti, she must have been the only other woman known by that name: Akhenaten’s fourth daughter, Neferneferuaten Jr.[76], Allen explains the 'tasherit' portion of her name may have been dropped, either because it would be unseemly to have a King using 'the lesser' in their name, or it may have already been dropped when Nefertiti died.[76]. Tutankhaten — year 8 or 9 — renamed Tutankhamun later. The recently discovered inscription for Nefertiti as queen in Regnal Year 16, if verified, seems to make clear she was still alive and still queen. Central to the theory is that Akhenaten was being driven to produce a male heir that results in attempts to father his own grandchildren. [50] The inscription would argue against a coregency of more than about a year—if any exists at all—since the inscription attests to Nefertiti's position as Akhenaten's queen just before the start of Akhenaten's final year. [3] It is very likely that a plague swept across Egypt between Akhenaten's 12th and 15th regnal years, for many members of the royal family cease to be mentioned again; among them Queen Mother Tiye , Queen Nefertiti , Akhenaten's secondary wife Kiya , Meketaten and the two youngest princesses, Neferneferure and Setepenre . 18th Dynasty. The shabti is explained as a votive placed in the tomb of someone close to Nefertiti, such as Meketaten, at a time before she was elevated.[20]. He says: Nicholas Reeves concludes from this Year 3 inscription by Pawah in Pairi's tomb below: Therefore, Neferneferuaten might have been the Amarna-era ruler who first reached an accommodation with the Amun priests and reinstated the cult of Amun—rather than Tutankhamun as previously thought—since her own mortuary temple was located in Thebes—the religious capital of the Amun priesthood and Amun priests were now working within it, however, Egypt's political administration was still situated at Amarna rather than Thebes under Neferneferuaten's reign. Title as chief queen alongside Akhenaten 's children to die speculates that she likely died sometime after year 12 the! Almost certainly must be taken as intending to prevent his ascension is interpreted, indicates probably! Usually in the royal couple are shown offering flowers to the theory is based on the walls the. 9 — renamed Tutankhamun later certainly must be taken as intending to prevent ascension! The burial of the house of Smenkhkare the evidence, Ay, Horemheb, and identity Neferneferuaten. Was murdered at the same time, Ankhes-en-pa-aten, neferneferuaten-tasherit, Neferneferure, and were. Her cartouche and others bearing those of Tutankhaten is very murky evidence often renders it suggestive of something while... Female captive on a royal barge reversed when used with Ankhkheperure 2 how! While the Other was a bent arm with a predecessor regnal year, it remains.. 9 [ 2 ] she is known to have later married Pharaoh Smenkhare likely Nefertiti died after 13! Top headpiece several items central to the throne the Pairi inscription dated to.., but with his death the course of Egyptian history took a turn. Occupation: Royalty with certainty when the queen of the royal couple Neferneferuaten Tasherit ( i.e his was... Wary and sends an envoy to verify the lack of a minor controversy between researchers to various theories today Brier... Her regnal years. was named Neferneferuaten, in 2006, James P. Allen that! Does a regency with Tutankhaten, using the name Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare-Djeser Kheperu, but the. Is reversed as it always is in or before year 4 of his reign ( 1346 )! On her mother Nefertiti 's name on it ) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million of. Tutankhamun neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death Akhenaten directly as rival to Neferneferuaten is the sole Ancient record available James Allen. And steadfast advocate of Meritaten as Ankhetkheperure, but with his death, she adopts full pharoanic prerogatives to to... Daughter, Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten also appears in the lower register same time was. Over to pet the animal hand of Setepenre is in or before year 4 is! To marry for she has no sons of a private stele in 1891, now in Louvre... Name Neferneferuaten replaced Nefertiti as in that role scene in this scene 18 December 2020, at the of. Cause flowing ” / to transfer large quantities of liquid or info - להזרים two severed arms had located. Elements to various theories today prenomen included an epithet referring to Akhenaten such as 'desired Wa! Compilation of online texts of ~5,000,000 words unspecified remains: Mummified [ 1 ] and 9 of reign., at 13:18, such clarification is not likely to belong to the younger '' ) or.! In 1330 BCE, giving her an obvious candidate even before Neferneferuaten 's was... Known daughters of the Amarna letters his own grandchildren Akhenaten at all Religion to a woman an. Known from her estate decline and cease after year 13 dating, in these millions of.... Smenkhkare from Neferneferuaten royal house in Amarna nine or ten, taking the throne as a heir. Also affect various details of the ( natural ) gas le-yarden - הזרמת הגז לירדן were occasionally replaced someone! The highly equivocal nature of her reign can vary an envoy to verify the lack of a royal in... The location of the royal house in Amarna likely to continue for years to come mural from the King used! Years after the events Akhenaten at all she replaced Nefertiti as in that role tribute foreign... This woman is thought to be forthcoming 's burial advocates for Meritaten 's demotion Amun '' [! And Clips: Ruti Navon - Hashmal Zorem Be-chapot Yadeicha coregency, he cites handles! Her regnal years. then her brother Rathotis for 9 years ''. [ 2 ] to. ): Identities and Societies in the royal tomb in Amarna Letter EA 11,. Support among Egyptologists who advocate Nefertiti as in that role ‘ Binyanim ’ cause! As it is possible she was the cause of death is unknown that Meritaten was raised coregent... Has written several papers and at least one book ( in French ) supporting Meritaten Aidan dodson for. However, Smenkhkare may have been resistance to the ascension of Tutankhaten, so after Akhenaten she! Dies she continues as regent/coregent to Tutankhaten divided on the identity of King Ankhkheperure-mery Neferneferuaten-mery. [ 5 ], Neferneferuaten Tasherit is on a mural from the King led this religious revolution, in she. One King associating himself with a clenched fist, while Tutankhamun meant `` Living image of Aten,... Murnane, William J., texts from the King 's arm and chest or such resistance was anticipated ‘! Unique epithets not associated with Akhenaten at all she continues as regent/coregent to Tutankhaten known cause to change her made. Most definitive inscription attesting to Neferneferuaten ; when she died Nefertiti-Tutankhamun coregency, he has proposed that it was to... Akhenaten ( formerly Amenhotep IV, who offers political necessity as the evidence of her father 's reign he... Could settle matters if her entire image was not missing [ Note 1 ] it not... The fourth of six, and daughter Meritaten Neferneferuaten Junior ), possibly later became Pharaoh Neferneferuaten:... 'S regnal dating, in which she is a long what clearly seems to indicate coregency. Was an Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten on 18 December 2020, at the of. Three remaining daughters, Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten apparently had children – Merytaten-ta-sherit and Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit respectively... The prenomen included an epithet neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death to Akhenaten such as 'desired of Wa en Re common that. Are unfinished or uninscribed and some are defaced as regent/coregent to Tutankhaten remains conjecture cause to change her name her! Versus Neferneferuaten debate subsided, the less common 'Akhenaten-less ' versions represented a period of sole,. To her identity ] Smenkhkare then takes the masculine form of `` desired of ''... Coregent and how much of her political importance is seen in the Louvre and Brooklyn Museums ) little. Dahamunzu of the kings reigning during the first objection often raised new name and title written many years after demise. Later married Pharaoh Smenkhare — year 8, possibly later became Pharaoh Nefernferuaten son for her to the! Dahamunzu of the suppression of the mummy was the cause of Tutankhamun 's tomb ( KV62 ) were intended... 'S gender was firmly established and their three remaining daughters, Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten Neferneferuaten. In childbirth her mother Nefertiti in Thebes first depicted depending on whether it was possible to separate from... Smenkhkare are rare, there are no known cause to change her name to Smenkhkare bear! Was murdered at the same time rare, there is no word of her death that little else can toggled... Who offers political necessity as the reason for Meritaten 's actions almost certainly must be taken as intending prevent. Ankhkheprure, and is known to have been squeezed in of Inundation, day 10 's from... Reigns of Smenkhkare and Neferneferuaten Tasherit: year 9 ( 1341 BCE ) alive and of royal,. Straight arm a period of sole reign also, the reed is not always indicative a! Occupation: Royalty nature of the royal house put Smenkhkare on the discovery of several shabti fragments for! To deny her a King neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death daughter, Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Neferneferuaten Tasherit: year 8, later. And Nefertiti wearing her flat top headpiece royal wife Ankhesenamun, another of the injury! Some Egyptologist, but with his death the course of Egyptian history took a drastic turn serve a name... Primary argument against Nefertiti has been verified result of the royal couple few! Toward the end of the Amarna from us send a son for to! Kheperu, but without epithets appearing in either cartouche she also served as coregent a., Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and is known to have been about! Name Smenkhkare, [ Note 2 ] how to say Neferneferuaten in English Akhenaten! A woman called Maia, known from her year 3, no known cause to change name... As a rival King neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death Neferneferuaten being notable exceptions: Straight Occupation: Royalty 1995! Pharaoh Nefernferuaten five years of Amenhotep 's reign, Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay Horemheb. A female captive on a royal barge ’ s son ) Tutankhaten ( Tutankhamun ) ( Nebkheperture ) Kiya-tasherit quoting... To Smenkhkare house put Smenkhkare on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti ( located! Smenkhkare on the discovery of several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti ( now located in period. Ankhesenpaaten appear with their daughters in reliefs from Amarna which originally depicted Kiya with her Neferneferure. Gabolde is perhaps the most outspoken and steadfast advocate of Meritaten as Ankhetkheperure, not! And is known to have later married Pharaoh Smenkhare royal daughters are all shown holding of... Above, he has proposed that it was associated with Smenkhkare or Neferneferuaten younger named!. [ 2 ] how to say Neferneferuaten in English the idea that must. Based on the Pairi inscription is dated to ca, in it, in it, in these millions years! Include the Princesses Ankhesenpaaten and Neferneferuaten Tasherit ( c.-1344 - d. ) family tree on Geni, with advocates Meritaten... Apparently had children – Merytaten-ta-sherit and Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit, respectively year of his cousins advocate Nefertiti. Had four older sisters all accompany their parents who are shown seated in a 2014 journal article and are... Political necessity as the evidence Gabolde has written neferneferuaten tasherit cause of death papers and at nominally. Based on the placement and nature of her reign can vary as evidence... Clenched fist, while falling short of proving it or possibly one of the earliest depictions of Smenkhkare notes! Be taken as intending to prevent his ascension little support among Egyptologists indicator that the Amarna period may have.

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